Friday, February 10, 2012
Sunday, July 24, 2011
Adverbs and adverbial phrases qualify verbs.
They add colour and interest to the action in a sentence.
1. Adverb - One word qualifies a verb. Most adverbs end in "-ly".
2. Adverbial phrase involves two or more words qualifying the verb.
3. Adverbs and adverbial phrases answer:
how - most adverbs answer this question
e.g. In the Winter, many surfers enjoy riding the chilly waves with excitement.
In the Winter - adverbial phrase of time
with excitement - adverbial phrase of manner
NOTE: chilly ends in "-ly" but look at this word's position in the sentence.
It is an adjective describing waves.
(And waves is not automatically a verb. Here it is a noun.)
Before identifying a word's role in a sentence, check where it is in the sentence.
In other words, check the context.
Wednesday, April 13, 2011
Pic by G.W. aka P.A. ~ An excerpt from an article in Royal Auto magazine.
The traveller's tale is written mostly in active voice so that the reader feels close to the journey.
Pic by G.W. aka P.A. ~ Sign at Coolart, Mornington Peninsula
ACTIVE VOICE ~ When the subject of the verb does the action of the verb, then the whole sentence is in the active voice.
1. He walks the dog along the beach in all weathers.
2. He is walking the dog along the beach today.
3. He has been walking the dog along the beach today.
4. He walked/was walking the dog along the beach today.
When to use the active voice:
(a) This is the preferred form in essays, with particular preference for 1. and 4. ("walked" NOT "was walking") above. It is a compact, direct style, keeping attention on the topic of the essay rather than on complicated grammatical issues.
(b) In creative writing, this form can create a sense of immediate drama.
PASSIVE VOICE ~ When the subject of the verb is being acted upon, then the whole sentence is in the passive voice.
1. The dog is being walked by the man along the beach today.
2. The dog was/has been walked by the man along the beach today.
When to use the passive voice:
(a) If a word needs special emphasis, then the passive voice may be preferred. In the first example above, attention is drawn to the dog rather than the man. But notice that more verb elements are needed to achieve this + the preposition "by" is included!
NOTE: Signs (like the one above for the Old Buttery) often take short cuts and avoid the extra words.
(b) In creative writing, this form may create a slowly paced drama or narrative (for tension).
Wednesday, December 15, 2010
1. Adjectives may specify:
number (numerical adjectives e.g. "40" in the poster while the adverb "nearly" modifies it)
general identity (demonstrative adjectives e.g. this, that, these, those)
specific national/racial/city identity (proper adjectives from proper nouns e.g. Australian, Chinese, American, Melbournian)
2. Adjectives may use:
nouns as adjectives
e.g. In the above poster, the compound adjective gap year describes organisation. Both gap and year are usually used as nouns.
3. Adjectives follow the noun when any part of the verb "to be" is used:
e.g. Hobart is/was/will be cold and windy.
The words cold and windy are adjectives describing a perspective of Hobart.
4. Some adjectives are used in a comparison.
e.g. Brisbane is hot. Cape York is hotter.
When used in this way, they are known as comparative adjectives.
Comparative adjectives involve degree.
(a) The base is known as the positive form
e.g, strong, funny, red, good, bad
(b) The next stage, comparing two items, is known as the comparative form
e.g. stronger, funnier OR more funny, redder, better, worse
(c) The last stage, comparing three or more items, is known as the superlative form.
e.g. strongest, funniest OR most funny, reddest, best, worst
Tuesday, December 14, 2010
Pic by G.W. aka P.A. ~ A wintry view of the wild surf at Gunnamatta, Mornington Peninsula
ALL SENTENCES NEED/MUST HAVE AT LEAST ONE VERB TO EXIST AND TO MAKE SENSE!
Using the photo above, there are:
simple verbs = one word = tumble
compound verbs = two or more words = is fascinated
*infinitives = base form of verbs that begin with "to" (may act as the subject or object of a sentence) = to surf
Using the photo above, the action may be
physical = tumble
mental = longs
Verbs are created in the present, past or future tense.
This is the time of the action.
All the verbs in the picture are in the present tense.
The action is happening NOW.
The past tense of these sentences would be:
1. The mother longed to surf.
(NOTICE THAT THE INFINITIVE IS THE OBJECT IN THE SENTENCE, SO IT DOES NOT CHANGE!
To surf was a dream for the mother.
Now the infinitive is the subject of the sentence.)
2. The waves tumbled in to shore.
3. The child was fascinated by the waves.
4. Footprints etched the sand.
5. The sand was damp.
Monday, December 13, 2010
Pic by G.W. aka P.A. ~ A view of Safety Beach on Port Phillip Bay
NOUNS ARE NAMES/TITLES OF OBJECTS, BOOKS, BUSINESSES, SCHOOLS, PEOPLE, PLACES, SHIPS, FEELINGS OR IDEAS
Common nouns (able to be seen) are names of objects which are identified by a lower case letter.
e.g. water, sand, sky, table, computer
Compound nouns are two or more words that together name a single object.
e.g. power lines, boat shed, book shelf
Abstract nouns (unseen) are names of feelings or ideas which are identified by a lower case letter.
e.g. communication, security, love (may be a verb too), idea, feeling, shame
Collective nouns are special names for a group of living or non-living things.
e.g. herd of cattle, flock of birds, pride of lions, gaggle of geese, nest of tables
Proper nouns are names/titles of books, movies, TV shows, hurricanes, businesses, schools, people, nationalities, religions, art styles, eras, places or ships which are identified by a capital letter.